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Abū Rayān Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/Persianابوریحان بیرونی‎ Abū Rayān BērōnīNew PersianAbū Rayān Bīrūnī[5]) (4 September 973– 9 December 1048), known as Al-Biruni (Arabic:البيروني‎) in English, was an Iranian scholar and polymath from Khwarezm — a region which encompasses modern-day western Uzbekistan, and northern Turkmenistan.

Al-Biruni is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in physicsmathematicsastronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historianchronologist andlinguist.

He studied almost all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenuous work. Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, in which scholarly thought went hand in hand with the thinking and methodology of the Islamic religion. In addition to this type of influence, Al-Biruni was also influenced by other nations, such as the Greek, who he took inspiration from when he turned to studies of philosophy.

He was conversant in KhwarezmianPersianArabic,Sanskrit, and also knew GreekHebrew and Syriac. He spent a large part of his life in Ghazni in modern-day Afghanistan, capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty, which was based in what is now central-eastern Afghanistan. In 1017 he traveled to the South Asia and authored a study of Indian culture (Tahqiq ma li-l-hind...) after exploring the Hinduism practised in India. He was given the title "founder of Indology". He was an impartial writer on customs and creeds of various nations, and was given the title al-Ustadh ("The Master") for his remarkable description of early 11th-century India. He also made contributions to Earth sciences, and is regarded as the "father of geodesy" for his important contributions to that field, along with his significant contributions to geography.

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